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              儒家倫理與商業文化

              時間:2011-03-23 20:53來源:【中國孔子】 作者:胡平 點擊:
              中國古代曾有半部論語治天下的說法,這當然是夸張了以孔子思想為核心的儒家倫理的實踐價值。然而,儒家倫理作為中華民族傳統文化中的最深邃、最富有生命力的思想體系,千百年來的確對中國的經濟、政治、文化領域產生了廣泛而深遠的影響。儒家文化不象人類歷

              中國古代曾有“半部論語治天下”的說法,這當然是夸張了以孔子思想為核心的儒家倫理的實踐價值。然而,儒家倫理作為中華民族傳統文化中的最深邃、最富有生命力的思想體系,千百年來的確對中國的經濟、政治、文化領域產生了廣泛而深遠的影響。儒家文化不象人類歷史上許多燦爛一時而終歸湮滅的大文化一樣,已經失去了其深度和存在價值,而有著輝煌的發展前景。商業文化的研究與建設,可以說是從一個角度來繼承、發展儒家文化的有益嘗試。   
                作為“儒者第一義”(朱熹語)的義利之辯,就是商業文化學中一個重要課題。儒家倫理關注人際間的秩序、規范以及社會責任感,強調人們在其所處的道德關系網點上所承擔的道德責任,但并不排斥賺錢、發財。人們往往根據孟子“仁義而巳矣,何必曰利”、董仲舒的“正其誼(義)而不謀其利”以及宋儒的一些說法,便認定儒學重義輕利,排斥商業。我認為,這至少是一種片面的理解。其實,《論語》中許多論述,如“富與貴,人之所欲也”、“不義而富且貴,于我如浮云”、“富而可求也,雖執鞭之士,吾亦為之”等等,都是主張義利并舉,將經濟與倫理緊密地聯系在一起的,不過又強調經濟生活的道德原則,認為集體利益高于個人利益,精神價值重于物質價值而已。明治維新之后,日本第一銀行頭任總裁 澀澤榮一以及天皇教席三鳥中洲都曾說:“論語中有算盤,算盤中有論語”,這句話貼切地闡述了儒家倫理與商品經濟之間微妙而又深奧的關系。道德附麗于一定的經濟生活中,并為經濟的發展提供更為適宜、更符合人們心理要求的規范、手段;而經濟生活又蘊含了一定的道德原則,并調整道德生活中的各種關系。兩者彼此交融、互相促進。這和中國歷史上“義以生利”(《國語晉語》)、“既無功利道義者乃無用之虛語耳”(南宋葉適《習學記言序目》)等,表達的意思是基本一致的。“義者,宜也”,這是優化、協調各種利益關系的“度”。儒家倫理的核心是“仁”,即從人類之愛、人際關系中延伸、生發出來的一種互相尊重、互相友愛的人文精神,是儒學以仁釋義,以義釋利,在利益觀與道德觀之間建立的平衡機制。我國當前處在社會主義市場經濟環境下,商業經營者之間既是市場上競爭的對手,又是貿易伙伴,有著共同的目標和利益。這種新型的利益關系本身就蘊含了義利并舉、競爭與服務相統一的倫理要求,如果我們對儒家倫理中義利并舉的道德原則認真總結和繼承,對社會主義商業文明的建設不是大有裨益嗎?   
                儒家倫理作為商業文化的源泉之一,可以整理、研究的內容還有很多。比如作為儒學基本內涵的“禮”,原是尊敬和祭祀祖先的儀式,后來逐步演化為以血緣為基礎、以等級為特征的倫理規范,滲透在君臣、父子、夫婦、兄弟、長幼、朋友等各種社會關系中。一方面,它維護了封建家長式等級制度,另一方面,它又融入現實生活的習慣、風俗之中,成為人民言行舉止道德化的潛在制約力量。從后者引申開去,儒家倫理又將“禮”看作是人類區別于禽獸的外在符號,是人類文明進步的標記。《孟子告子上》中有一段話說:“一簞食、一瓢飲,得之則生,弗之則死。呼爾而與之,行道之人弗受;蹴爾而與之,乞人不屑也。”人的各種活動從某種意義上說,都是一種文化活動,它往往超越簡單的生理要求而帶有精神滿足的意味。“呼”與“蹴”,是一種粗野、非禮的舉止,因而得不到社會成員(即便是乞丐)的認同和接受。“禮”是人們交往、溝通的共同語言,我們今天在商業經營活動中倡導優質服務、禮貌待客,實際上就是對儒家所講的“禮”的批判性繼承。我們應當將這種“禮”的精神與共產主義道德規范聯系起來考察,在經濟生活中推行“道之以德,齊之以禮”,總結出一門如何做社會主義新商人的學問。再如,儒家主張的“信”與“和”的原則,即“朋友有信”、“國人之交止于信”,也對我們有用。信,是人際交往的法則,也是五倫關系中、最有價值的內容。商業活動中的信用、公平、兌現的觀點,就是“信”的體現。有信,則能相互尊重、禮讓;有信,則能“同氣相求”、眾志成城,才能聯結起社會交往關系中穩固的倫理網絡,實現“閉門一家親,開門天下親。”由信而和,由和而親,這種帶有濃郁理想色彩的文化氛圍在海外華商中表現得尤為突出。   
                中國是孔子的故鄉,儒家倫理的發祥地,應該說,這種文化的優勢在我們手里。但是,幾十年來,由于各種原因,我們對儒家倫理或嗤之以鼻,或束之高閣,或只從純粹哲學的角度去發微探幽,而忽略其作為一種實踐哲學的現實意義。目前,世界已進入知識經濟時代,我國又加入了世貿組織,即將融入全球化經濟。在機遇和挑戰面前,我們應多層次、多角度開發儒家倫理這筆文化遺產,探討它與經濟現代化、與商業文化的關系,在傳統與現實、文化與經濟之間建立起富有生機、富有新意的內在聯系,從而使傳統文化的優勢真正服務于我國社會主義現代化的建設事業。
              (作者系原商業部部長)

              (責任編輯:北辰星)
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