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              中國傳統道德現代化的路向

              時間:2011-03-25 16:00來源:北方教育 作者:劉新華 點擊:
              不在場時,臣就可以不忠;當臣不在場時,君也就可以不惠。比如說,皇帝嫖娼是不道德的,但宋徽宗走專門挖成的地下暗道與李師師幽會時并沒有不道德感,因為沒有大臣們看見,也就不會引起大臣們的朝議。今天的中國,諸如交警不在時就闖紅燈等種種不道德現象,

              不在場時,“臣”就可以不“忠”;當“臣”不在場時,“君”也就可以不“惠”。比如說,皇帝嫖娼是不道德的,但宋徽宗走專門挖成的地下暗道與李師師幽會時并沒有不道德感,因為沒有大臣們看見,也就不會引起大臣們的朝議。今天的中國,諸如交警不在時就闖紅燈等種種不道德現象,都可以說是這種“仁”式道德的缺陷所致的遺風。 
                由此觀之,傳統中國的道德不是與個體本身之“自我”有關,而是與別人有關,并且是與別人之“口”有關。這正是中國人“品德”形成的深層原因。中國人喜歡說別人閑話,也怕被別人說閑話,可以說是中國人之“品德”意識深入人心的明證。不難想象,在以“品德”為“道德”的傳統中國,可能也不缺乏為個人道德情操而一日三省的高尚人士,但更多的卻是“當面是人,背后是鬼”的道德偽君子。比如說,中國兩漢時期以察舉取士,從理論上說,是因為德行重于知識,而德行只能通過舉薦來了解,因此,這種察舉制應該是一個較好的制度。事實上,這種察舉制度實行初期,對抑制世卿世椂,提倡優良德行,不拘一格地選拔人才,也確實是起到了積極的作用。然而,這種舉薦制度發展到后來,許多士人矯飾言行,故作清高,虛偽得不近人情,成為東漢后期的社會風氣,“舉秀才,不知書;察孝廉,父別居;寒素清白濁如泥,高第良將怯如雞。”(《抱撲子》外篇卷一五)。這種察舉之弊正是以“品德”為“道德”所致。 
                “品德”的危害是在道德生活中形成“道德暮夜”。 
                在傳統的西方社會,“上帝”是個人靈魂的認同對象,是個人道德形成的原動力。因此,西方傳統道德在某種意義上可以說是“神德”,個人之所以按照道德規范的要求行事,是為了獲得上帝的歡心和喜愛。因為上帝無時不在、無地不在,所以對上帝懷有敬畏之心的西方人無論是在暮夜也好,無論是在光天化日也好,都會按照上帝的旨意行事。但在中國,因為其傳統道德中缺失一個統率個人靈魂的上帝,所以個人行為就不必對上帝負責,相應地,中國人的道德表現也就與西方人的道德表現存在較大的差異。 
                在中國,盡管也有恪守“天知、地知、你知、我知,何謂無知”的楊震式的人物,但那只是少數,更多的是信從“暮夜無知者”的王密式的人。是的,只要在“暮夜”,除了你我之外不會還有別的人知道我們干了什么,那么,只要你我愿意,我們想干什么就干什么,王密我把白花花的金子送給你,你收下就是了,我不會有什么顧忌,你也不要有什么顧忌。中國人就是如此,他講道德,是怕人看見而被人說“閑話”;他不講道德,是因為沒人看見因此不會有人說“閑話”,或者是即使有人看見,但看見的人說的“閑話”對他的利益不會產生任何損害,或者是看見的人也是不道德的而且是與他同流合污的人。 
                三、從“品德”到“道德”:何以可能及如何可能在傳統中國,對于絕大多數中國人來說,由于他們生活范圍的局限,在道德操守上只需做到儒家從五對“二人”關系出發而設計的“五倫”就夠了,即君臣有義、父子有親、夫婦有別、長幼有序、朋友有信。但是,這種道德規范沒有普適性,正如費孝通所說:“在這種社會中,一切普遍的標準并不發生作用,一定要問清了,對象是誰,和自己是什么關系之后,才能決定拿出什么標準來。”[7]但是,改革開放后,中國加速進入工業化社會,中國人的生活范圍大大擴大,不具有普適性的道德已在現實經濟社會中遭遇種種困境,而且,傳統道德如果不現代化,還會對現代經濟的良好發展形成種種障礙。因此,經濟生活方式的改變使傳統道德的現代化成為必需,從“品德”到“道德”因此有了可能。 
                工業化社會有三個特色: (1)生產以個人為單位參加,但卻是集體生產; (2)社會組織以個人為單位參加,但卻是群體生活; (3)人與生產工具相分離,因此可以四方流轉。[8]這些特色使得工業社會的道德已經難以靠“二人”關系中的人倫、親情、血緣等來維系,它需要的是普遍性的公正和普適性的正義。 
                值得指出的是,無論是西方還是中國,其傳統道德都是“他制他律型”道德,西方傳統道德能發揮有效作用是源于上帝對個人的制約,中國傳統道德則是源于“二人” 
                關系中彼方對此方或此方對彼方的制約。很顯然,兩者都不是“自制自律型”道德。在西方,從天才人物尼采大聲宣布“上帝死了”的那時刻起,上帝至上的和絕對的權威失去了,上帝不再是所有人認可的道德有效性的基礎,以上帝視角建構的傳統道德因此不得不面臨著現代化的任務。但是,西方傳統道德的現代化歷程是“去上帝化”,是從天堂走向人間,是世俗化,而中國傳統道德本來就是人本的,是人間的,是世俗的。因此,西方對傳統道德現代化作出的探索以及取得的經驗都不能作為中國傳統道德現代化的有效借鑒。 
                筆者以為,現代意義上的道德的建成,必須使得個體既是道德生活的直接參與者,又是道德生活的直接受益者。因為只有如此,道德對個體而言才具有高度的自覺性,才會成為個體自覺的和自然的行為操守,道德才是“自制自律型”道德,才是本質意義上的道德。因此,現代意義上的道德,應該是既能促進現代經濟生活的良好運行,能調整現代社會中人與人的關系以維護社會秩序和穩定,又能提高個體的精神境界,促進個體的自我完善,并推動個體全面發展。唯有如此,現代意義上的道德才能說是真正的建成了。(作者:劉新華) 
               
                參考文獻: 
                [1]王維先,鐵省林。話語倫理學的道德視角的重建[J].道德與文明, 2009, (4): 89. 
                [2]李華興,吳嘉勛。梁啟超選集[M].上海:上海人民出版社, 1984. 213. 
                [3]鮑霽。費孝通學術精華錄[M].北京:北京師范學院出版社, 1988. 357. 
                [4]鮑霽。梁漱溟學術精華錄[M].北京:北京師范學院出版社, 1988. 251. 
                [5]胡厚宣,胡振宇。殷商史[M].上海:上海人民出版社, 2003. 451. 
                [6](美)孫隆基。中國文化的深層結構[M].桂林:廣西師范大學出版社, 2004. 12. 
                [7]費孝通。鄉土中國[M].北京:北京出版社, 2005. 
                21. 
                [8]韋政通。倫理思想的突破[M].北京:中國人民大學出版社, 2005. 189.

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