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              古琴文化——百家皆崇的文化

              時間:2011-03-23 14:42來源:中國皇家風水網  作者:佚名 點擊:
              古琴文化百家皆崇的文化 (一)百家爭鳴 (1)百家爭鳴 春秋戰國時期,是中國歷史上文化思想全面繁榮的時期,即所謂百家爭鳴的時期。 當時生產力發展很快,各地富足,而天子之勢衰微。各路諸候,爭相自強以期稱霸于世。這就給了諸子百家以盡顯才華的機會。于

              古琴文化——百家皆崇的文化

              (一)百家爭鳴

              (1)百家爭鳴

              春秋戰國時期,是中國歷史上文化思想全面繁榮的時期,即所謂百家爭鳴的時期。

              當時生產力發展很快,各地富足,而天子之勢衰微。各路諸候,爭相自強以期稱霸于世。這就給了諸子百家以盡顯才華的機會。于是,各家導師爭相出山,以期用自己的思想使自己的國家強盛于世間。

              百家爭鳴之勢的形成,自然使中華文化思想空前繁榮,乃至對后世造成了深遠影響。在此時期,琴的使用,已成為普遍現象。

              在當時,活動在思想舞臺上主要角色約有九大家,即后來所說之“九流”,所謂:道家、儒家、墨家、法家、名家、縱橫家、陰陽家、雜家、農家。各家學說,觀察事物的著眼點不同,自然會有一些差異。

              道家能夠“歷記成敗”,“秉要執本”,通過對三皇五帝等英杰的總結,通曉事物陰陽變化的規律。道家以無為而治思想為治國之本,以清虛卑弱為個人守身的原則。

              儒家特重仁義道德品質的修養,以六藝育人治世,“《禮》以節人,《樂》以發和,《書》以導事,《詩》以達意,《易》以神化,《春秋》以義”。

              墨家注重祭祀,深信賢愚善惡之道,提倡節儉,贍養有德,好為善事。

              法家主張以刑律治天下,提倡賞罰分明,講究信用。

              名家特重正名分,提倡明禮政而治天下。

              縱橫家特重權變,善長因事制宜。

              陰陽家處理事務特重把握時令。

              雜家有博雜的特點,兼容儒墨思想,揉合名法主張,提倡治用必要融匯諸家學說。

              農家則特重農作,鼓勵耕織。

              (2)琴文化是諸家共樂的文化

              多少年來,這九大家的思想,可以說一直給中國人以很大影響。雖是百家爭鳴,但誰也不會將誰“打死”。各家思想一直共存于中國人的頭腦中,這正是中國文化的一大特點。

              中國文化與其他文化的最大區別之一,就是中國人能夠找到各種文化的共通之處,凡是好的,皆為我所用。中國文化原本如此。“古為今用”,“洋為中用”,這兩句話可說是精僻的總結。

              其實,中國人之所以可以將不同的思想融匯于一心,從某種角度來說,是因為中國人深知各種思想本有的共通之處:自心灑脫,世道安祥。古今中外,人們內心皆有此聲。

              此內心之聲的表達,正是琴的長處。雖諸家思想各不相同,但都同樣對琴有著特殊的好感。琴融匯百家神髓,盡展人心深處的恬靜安祥,瀟灑自在之聲。所以,人們才說,琴實在是中國文化的卓越代表。

              (二)儒釋道三教

              (1)三教為中華傳統文化的主體

              到了西漢年間,中國曾一度“罷黜百家,獨尊儒術”。儒學的地位空前提高。

              東漢年間,佛教傳入中國,并迅速在中國蓬勃發展起來。至南北朝時期,佛教已在中國全境文泛發展,在思想領域地位極高。“諸行無常,諸法無我,涅槃寂靜”是佛教的思想總綱。

              佛教傳入中國后,受佛教等宗教影響,道學在中國民間進入了宗教化的時代,道教正式形成。魏晉以后,道教步入官家,并越來越受到重視。

              南北朝時,部分儒士將儒學發展為儒教,與佛道二教并稱為三教。

              中國文化是博采融通的文化。中國的儒釋道三教形成后,一直并行發展,相互交融。佛教的圓融無礙,無我無常;道教的合乎自然,陰陽變化;儒教的仁義禮智信等思想,都對中國文化起著不可估量的影響。千百年過去了,儒釋道三教文化,成為了中國傳統文化的主體,是中國文化的總代表。

              (2)琴文化是三教皆崇的文化

              儒釋道教,各有其深刻的內含,其靈魂共通,當然在思想上也各有差別。這些不能談得過多,我們的主題是琴文化。

              樂是儒學必修的重要內容。而琴更是儒者的最愛.而道者更是喜愛琴那清靜灑脫的韻味。就連提倡不觀聽歌舞的佛教僧人,也同樣歡喜自琴中領悟空靈大智。對琴的喜愛,三教皆同。

              自古以來,中國的文人往往皆尊三教。他(她)們敬孔圣人,大多也都禮佛敬道。而文人們對琴的喜愛當然不在話下。他們往往借琴以完美自我的人格,修養身心,體悟大道。琴與劍,成為了文人的不可缺少的基本配備。琴棋書畫,則是才子佳人們才能的標幟。

              琴文化與中國文人之間聯系之緊密,乃至與中國思想文化之間聯系之緊密,是常人所難以想象的。

              所謂“興于詩,立于禮,成于樂”。雅樂用以完善自我的人格。而琴正是雅樂的最佳代表。

              (責任編輯:北辰星)
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