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              老子之道:萬物始于道

              時間:2011-03-23 14:26來源:網絡 作者:admin 點擊:
              天下有始,以為天下母。既得其母,以知其子。既知其子,復守其母,沒身不殆。塞其兌,閉其門,終身不勤。開其兌,濟其事,終身不救。見小曰明,守柔曰強。用其光,復歸其明。無遺身殃,是謂習常。《道德經第五十二章》 天下有始,以為天下母。老子反復強調天

              天下有始,以為天下母。既得其母,以知其子。既知其子,復守其母,沒身不殆。塞其兌,閉其門,終身不勤。開其兌,濟其事,終身不救。見小曰明,守柔曰強。用其光,復歸其明。無遺身殃,是謂習常。《道德經第五十二章》

              天下有始,以為天下母。老子反復強調天下萬物都有一個開始,而萬物都是始于道。因此我們可以說道是生養萬物的母親,萬物都是道的孩子。這種比喻比較形象,好理解。我們知道同是一個母親的孩子也有好壞之分,性格各異。正是因為有好壞之分,所以我們中有的人懂得尊敬自己的母親,而有的人常常是“娶了媳婦忘了娘”,這種人必將受到道德的譴責。老子用母子關系來比附道和天地萬物的關系,是希望我們要像孝敬母親一般順應大道,只有這樣才是合乎了大道的德性,也只有這樣才不能招來災禍。

              “塞其兌,閉其門,終身不勤”,這句話的意思是將自己的感覺器官統統都關閉起來,將自己的心門也封閉起來,但老子所說的“塞其兌,閉其門,終身不勤。”并不是真的要我們像死人一樣不睜眼、不呼吸、不聽聲音,而是一種夸大其詞的說法,強調的是外界的誘惑會對我們造成種種傷害,因此我們不要妄想和妄為,妄想和妄為是違背大道的德性的,違背大道只會適得其反。老子在此要我們堵住“五色”、“五味”、“五音”進入我們身體的通道,這里的堵塞并不是不吃、不看、不聽,他允許正當的吃喝玩樂,其真正堵塞的是滋生誘惑我們靈魂墮落的通道。一旦這些的通道都打開,我們必將遭受深重的災難。

              “見小曰明。守柔曰強。”意思是能把極其微小的事物都看個清清楚楚,自然是眼睛明亮的表象;能堅守柔弱而充滿韌性,并表現出百折不回的氣勢就叫強。

              劉邦勝利以后,論功行賞,先將功勞最大的20余人,封了官,賞了地,其余的那些將領相互之間比較功勞的大小,誰也不服誰,日夜爭執不休,封賞的事沒法進行下去了。

              有一天,劉邦從洛陽南宮的閣樓上望去,看見那些將領們在洛水岸邊的沙灘上,三人一群、五人一伙,在交頭接耳地議論什么。劉邦問:“他們在嘀咕些什么?”張良說:“陛下還看不出來嗎?他們是在相聚謀反呢!”劉邦很是驚奇:“天下好不容易平定下來,他們干嗎又要謀反?”張良說:“陛下以一個普通百姓的身份起事,靠著這一班人奪取了天下;現在陛下貴為天了,而所封的人都是原來的老朋友和親戚故舊,而所殺的,都是原來一些有冤有仇的人。他們一合計,天下只有那么大,要封的人卻那么多,他們擔心陛下不會對他們都行封賞,又害怕原來有什么地方得罪了陛下而遭猜疑被殺,因此相聚謀反。”

              劉邦一聽愁眉不展:“這可怎么辦好?”張良問:“有沒有這么一個人,陛下平生最憎恨他,而大臣們又都了解這一點的?”劉邦說:“有這樣一個人。”張良問:“誰?”劉邦答:“雍齒。這個人原來就跟我不對付,又一而再給我難堪,我早想殺了他,只是因為他的功勞甚多,因此還有點不太忍心。”張良說:“這么辦吧:現在立即先封雍齒,這樣其他大臣也就安心了。”

              劉邦于是大擺宴席,當眾封雍齒為侯,同時督促丞相趕快定功行封。宴會以后,大臣們都很高興,議論說:“雍齒都被封為侯了,我們還有什么可擔心的!”

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